In this report, Ember proposes an ambitious wind and solar expansion plan for Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czechia, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Croatia, Bulgaria, Romania. It shows that accelerated renewables deployment can lead to improved security and lower power prices.

Media coverage: Euronews, Euractiv, E3GWindEurope, WindEurope, SAPICEEnergyNews, EnergyMonitor300Gospodarka, Greendex.hu, SeeNews, Playtech.ro, tzb-info.cz, Economedia.ro, Farmer.pl, Spider’s Web, HNonline.sk, G4Media.ro, Sita.sk, Teraz.sk, Novini24/7.bg, Globenergia, Jurnal.md, EnergyHub Slovakia, Energoklub.sk, Economica.net


The European Electricity Review analyses full-year electricity generation and demand data for 2022 in all EU-27 countries to understand the region’s progress in transitioning from fossil fuels to clean electricity.

Media coverage: Politico, World Economic Forum, Sky News, New York Times, Guardian, BloombergReutersForbesEuractiv, EU Observer, Social Europe, Carbon BriefEnergy MonitorMontelStraits Times, 300Gospodarka,Le Monde, Australian Financial Review, Yahoo News, Gazeta.pl, Die Welt, News.at, Anadolu Agency, ANSA.it, europapress.es, PAP, South China Morning Post, Australian Financial Review


The report analyses Ember’s monthly electricity generation data for the European Union, calculating the potential cost saving in avoided fossil gas imports as a result of the increase in solar power in summer 2022.

Media coverage: Bloomberg, Financial Times, Carbon Brief, Politico, GuardianAssociated Press, World Economic Forum, Montel, Der Spiegel, Die Welt, Süddeutsche ZeitungDie Zeit, Le Figaro, The Independent, Euronews, Het Nieuwsblad, 20 Minutos, Publico, AA, MSN, Tagesshau, The Kronen Zeitung, Algemeen Dagblad, US News, PV-Tech, Economic Times, Business Green, ENDS Europe, Euractiv


European countries must increase the pace of wind and solar deployment to help ditch Russian fossil fuels and put the region on track for its climate commitments. This study delves deeper into key countries’ renewable capacity expansion plans, comparing on-the-ground deployment rates with 1.5C aligned capacities to 2030 taken from modelling results.

Media coverage: Reuters, ReutersFinancial TimesMontel, World Economic Forumedie.net, EU Observer, Carbon Brief, pv-tech.org, Energy Central, bne IntellinewsNews NCR, Balkan Green Energy News, Euronews, ENDS Europe, Hungarian Conservative, Foresight.dk


In this report, CREA and Ember analyse European national responses to the gas crisis and Russia’s war on Ukraine. They show that the majority of European countries have significantly stepped up their ambition in terms of renewable energy deployment since 2019, while decreasing planned 2030 fossil fuel generation to shield themselves from geopolitical threats.

Media coverage: Reuters, Washington Post, New York Times, EuractivStraits Times, Social Europe, Outrage and Optimism, Powering Past Coal AllianceYahoo CanadaEnergy Monitor, Energy Monitor, The Weather NetworkEnergy Live News, Carbon PulsePV-Tech, renews.biz, Power Info Today, El Periodico de la Energia, El Independienteeconomica.net, Enerji Gunlugu, La Vanguardia, El Salto, Capital Romania, Energy Mix, klimat.rp.plSpider’s Web, Spider’s Web, Zielona.interia.pl, Puls Biznesu, Wyborcza, Kompas, SAPO, TOK FM, TOK FM, Euronews


The report sets out a potential pathway the UK could take to drastically reduce gas consumption in the power sector by 2030. It analyses cost savings from a timely transition from gas to a clean power system, as well as discussing energy security considerations and recommendations for policy support. Ember’s own power sector model is described and compared against other leading studies on the UK’s energy transition.

Media coverage: Financial Times, BBC, Business Green, Telegraph, Express, Electrek, Energy Live News, Canada Today, The Sun, ENDS, Sky News, Bloomberg, Guardian


A revision of the Polish energy strategy to 2040 (PEP2040) was announced in March 2022, predominantly to address energy security concerns. In this report, Ember and Reform Institute analyse the government’s draft plans for renewable energy expansion, showing that the PEP2040 assumptions are significantly under-ambitious.


The report asseses onshore wind distancing rules in all European Union member states, showing that Poland’s current policy is among the most strict. A further analysis of 7 decarbonisation scenarios for the Polish power sector indicates that Poland’s planning restrictions block it from deploying half of the onshore wind that is necessary for Europe’s 2030 climate goals.

Media coverage: Fakty TVN, Dziennik Gazeta PrawnaNoizzGramWZielone.pl, Business Insider, Business InsiderWprost, Polityka Insight, zielona.interia.pl, wyborcza.pl, SmogLab, wp.pl


Poland could quadruple its onshore wind capacity after lifting its extremely restrictive spatial planning regulations. If the setback distance is lowered to 500m, in line with the EU average, then onshore wind capacity can reach 44 gigawatts. Failing to do so will expose the country to power shortages and put a massive 100 billion zloty of recovery funding at risk.

Media coverage: PoliticoOKO.press, Dziennik Gazeta Prawna, Rzeczpospolita

World Bank

The Country Economic Memorandum is a key growth diagnostic prepared by the World Bank to analyze drivers of growth in the long term. The growth diagnostic for Poland provides a comprehensive analysis of key challenges and opportunities for sustaining economic development in a just, equitable way, through a green growth model, providing policy recommendations to overcome market, policy, and institutional barriers to low-carbon growth.

Instrat Policy PAper 09/2021

The last part of a trilogy on the Polish coal phase-out. The report focuses on the impact of RES expansion on electricity tariffs for households, based on electricity generation costs, changes in fees and levies, system costs. The report includes a detailed assessment of necessary transmission grid investments.

Media coverage: Dziennik Gazeta Prawna, TVN, Gazeta.pl (video), Fakt.pl, money.pl, RMF FM, Gazeta.pl, Tok FM, Green Podcast, PI Energy podcast, Śląska Opinia podcast, Rzeczpospolita, interia.pl, green-news, OKO.press, Smog Lab, Spider’s Web, Globenergia, zielona.interia.pl, Teraz Środowisko

Instrat Policy PAper 06/2021

A comprehensive study on the potential of different renewable technologies in Poland, using complex spatial analysis and power sector modelling. The results include an assessment of SRMC, CO2 emissions, generation structure, installed capacity potentials across RES types.

Media coverage: Rzeczpospolita, RzeczpospolitaRzeczpospolitaParkietParkietDziennik Gazeta Prawna, Onet.pl, MontelOKO.pressGazeta.plwp.plsuperbiznesbiznes.interia.plbiznes.interia.pl, Polityka Insight, Business Insider, stooq.pl, Biznes i Świat, Komputer Świat, energia.rp.pl, CIRE.pl, INN Poland, Wyborcza.biz, Politico – Newsletter, Radio Maryja, klimat.rp.pl, wnp.pl, biznesinfo.pl, enerad.pl, biznes.wprost.pl, msn.commsn.comonOZE.plSpider’s WebTrybuna Górnicza

Instrat Policy Note 01/2021

An update to the Polish “anti-wind” law is being discussed. Onshore wind is critical for Poland – without it, Poland cannot reach GHG-55% goals and will continue to have issues with energy security, including increasing energy prices and imports. The paper evaluates the onshore wind potential depending on legislative changes.

Media coverage: Reuters, EuractivRzeczpospolitaRzeczpospolitaenergia.rp.pl, regiony.rp.pl, klimat.rp.pl,  Dziennik Gazeta Prawna, Tygodnik Powszechny, Krytyka Polityczna, Gazeta Wyborcza, Gazeta Wyborcza, Onet.plBusiness Insider, gazeta.plINN Poland, INN Poland, INN Poland, Polityka Insight, OKO.press, OKO.pressbiznes.interia.plRzeczpospolitango.pl, Human Mag, Smog Lab

Instrat Working Paper 02/2021

A deep dive into power sector and labour market modelling for Eastern Greater Poland. The report compares two scenarios for the region, their impact on electricity generation mix, prices, CO2 emissions and the labour market.

Instrat Policy Paper 03/2021

An assessment of the Polish climate policy in several areas – power, heating, industry, transport. The report outlines the historical and current policies, evaluating their inefficiencies and outcomes – increased CO2 emissions, that could be avoided if the government’s plans were implemented correctly.

Media coverage: TVN24, Polsat News, Rzeczpospolita, Euractiv, klimat.rp.pl, zielona.interia.pl, Spider’s Web, Energetyka24, Ngo.pl, Zielone Wiadomości, Polityka Insight, 300 GospodarkaWyborczaMoney.plGazeta.plNgo.pl300 GospodarkaCIRE.plzielona.interia.plOKO.press

Green jobs in coal regions.
Case study: Bełchatów

Instrat Policy Paper 04/2020

The report analyses the potential for creating new jobs in the Bełchatów region, based on the acquisition of EU funds for the just transition. According to Instrat, green jobs can more than replace the current employment in mining and lignite combustion at the Bełchatów lignite complex.

Media coverage: Wyborcza, Wyborcza, Wyborcza, Wyborcza, Wyborcza, Rzeczpospolita – EnergiaNews, Krytyka Polityczna, Emerging Europe, CIRE, 300 Gospodarka, Biznes Alert, aleBank.pl, wnp.pl, oweglu.pl, Emerging Europe, LaptrinhX300 GospodarkaOKO.press

Green Fiscal Stimulus: Poland

Instrat Policy Note 03/2020

Green investments should be used as a recovery mechanism after the COVID-19 crisis due to, among others, their high job creation potential. We propose indicators to evaluate green investments and rank the most effective among them. We also describe methods of financing a green stimulus package in Poland.

Media coverage: Tok FMZielony PodcastNBP – obserwatorfinansowy.pl300 GospodarkaŚwiat OZEBiznes Alert

2030: Analysis of the border coal phase-out year in the energy sector in Europe and Poland

Instrat Policy Paper 01/2020

Scientists indicate that Poland should move away from burning coal in the energy sector no later than by 2030. To meet the 2030 deadline, the decarbonization pace in the Polish energy industry – heavily reliant on coal – should be faster than in other European countries.

Media coverage and citations: Interia.pl – Biznes, Money.pl, Rzeczpospolita TV – RzeczOBiznesie, Tok FM, 300 Gospodarka, Teraz Środowisko, Biznes Alert, CIRE.PL, 300 GospodarkaMinistry of Climate Expert Group, WWFKlastry.org.pl

Forum Energii

A bottom-up analysis of distribution grid investments related to the development of electromobility. Includes scenarios of EV expansion and a deep-dive into medium and low-voltage grids in several areas in Poland.


A comprehensive analysis of the coal phaseout scenarios in lignite mining region Eastern Greater Poland, taking into account the electricity mix, labor market, CO2 emissions, GDP.

Future energy mix in Poland: determinants, tools and forecasts

Polish Economic Institute Working Paper 06/2019

The Polish energy mix has been historically based on coal. In recent years, the rising costs of raw materials, increasing dependence on import and very high CO2 emission prices are putting pressure on the energy sector. It is high time to assess possible solutions of replacing coal with cleaner, cheaper and more secure options.

Media coverage and citations: biznes.interia.pl, Rzeczpospolita – EnergiaNews, Rzeczpospolita, Teraz Środowisko, Spidersweb.pl, Resources PolicyFriedrich Ebert Stiftung, Polish Economic Instute

Institutional components of the economic security of energy prosumers

Book chapter - CEDEWU

The chapter presents an analysis of institutional factors shaping the economic security of electrical energy prosumers. Institutional factors are defined as legal, regulatory and social characteristics of a given location. These factors are analyzed in the context of enterprises generating electricity from renewable energy sources.

Econometric analysis of power plant economic security

Book chapter - CEDEWU

The chapter presents an econometric analysis of the economic safety of power generation companies using a VECM model and cointegration analysis. The factors defining economic safety (described in earlier chapters in the book) are used as explanatory variables and the stock market prices of a Polish energy supplier are used as the dependent variable. The model analyzes which factors have the highest impact in determining economic safety on the Polish energy market.